What are endorphins and how do they reduce pain? List and…
- What are endorphins and how do they reduce pain?
- List and describe the different types of pain.
- Give reasons why older adults often do not express pain.
- Identify the nonverbal cues you would look for when assessing the pain of a confused patient.
- How does transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) differ from percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (PENS)
- When applying heat, what precautions should you consider
- What are the basic categories of medication for the relief of pain?
- What are the disadvantages of intramuscular or subcutaneous injection of medication?
- Describe how epidural analgesia is administered.