You need to address as a result of your Research What Was the Social Implications?

In the Abstract: ADD 2 Sentences and Not more. You need to address as a result of your Research What Was the Social Implications? Who will it impact and How. You can only write two sentences regarding the SI and not more. I Must see the words SI or you will  not score any points and if you write more than 2 sentences you will loose points. Once you are done with the above…Skip 2 spaces and Type: The Key Terms used in this Capstone were bla, bla, bla. Next: Your Social Implication Section Must Have References  or you will loose 20 points. PLEASE go back and make sure all paragraphs contain at least 2 or more different references accept for Lit Review (this can have only one) and the Abstract has None. Thanks…Your Final paper cannot be late.

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The Effect of Television Viewing on Children’s Behavioral Development

Shauna Davis

Walden University

MS Psychology – I/O Psychology

PSYC-6393 (Capstone)

October 27, 2019

Abstract

Television exposure to children is of great concern currently. With improved technology and easy access to televisions, pcs, phones and other electronic gadgets have proved to impact the behavioral development of children. In this paper, the focus was of television watching/viewing by children and how it affects their development in behaviors. The paper was based on previous studies hence no actual data collection was done. The study shows that the more time children spend in watching television, the affected they become in developing anti-social behaviors such as child bullying, drug use, and engagement is sexual activities and malnutrition and obesity. Parents/caregivers were found be contribute immensely on the time children spend watching television per day. It was found that parents does not spend adequate time with children when watching television. Therefore, children are left alone to watch television which are also availed in their bedrooms by their parents. Controlling the time children watch television and increasing the time parents spend with their children while watching television will greatly reduce the impacts children get when they watch alone.

Table of Contents

Introduction……………………………………………………………………4

Contemporary Issues…………………………………………………………..5

Background Definitions………………………………………………………5

Problem Statement…………………………………………………………….7

Integrated Literature Review…………………………………………………..9

Critical Analysis……………………………………………………………….15

Problem Resolution……………………………………………………………20

Social Implications…………………………………………………………….23

Capstone Reflection……………………………………………………………23

References………………………………………………………………………24

Introduction

Child behavioral development is important to every parent, society and the nation at large. When children are brought up in a well-mannered way through instilling good behaviors in them, parents as well as the society finds peace and joy in the children. Nevertheless, Parents have been raising children differently in tandem with societal changes. Technology has impacted the behavior of children and continues to change their lives differently each day (Schmidt, M. E., Rich, M., Rifas-Shiman, S. L., Oken, E., & Taveras, E. M., 2009). The availability and accessibility of technological gadgets such as cellphones, computers, and television by children is increasing every day.

Therefore, children hostile behaviors are increasing tremendously in different ways. The influences children get while watching television are both positive and negative. For instance, television may influence children to become involved in drug use and early sex, develop eating disorders, or partake in bullying and other aggressive and violent behaviors. However, the negative effects are of high concern since they make the child antisocial and eventually turns the child inhumane (Beales III, J. H., & Kulick, R., 2013). The educative episodes in television enhances the vital educational skills for children during their preschool period hence improving the academic performance of the child. Nevertheless, “television viewing in infancy is disruptive to play; it reduces the quality and quantity of child-parent interactions and is associated with inattentive/hyperactive behaviors, lower executive functions, and language delay, at least in the short-term” (Kostyrka-Allchorne, K., Cooper, N. R., & Simpson, A., 2017). In this paper I will discuss effects of television watching on children’s development behaviors such as eating, sexual behaviors, interaction with other peers and parents and language and skill developments.

Contemporary Issue

There are various contemporary issues that are meaningful when discussing the effects of television watching among children: (1) the increase of juvenile delinquency behaviors which is attributed to imitations from television (de Leeuw, R. N. H., Kleemans, M., Rozendaal, E., Anschütz, D. J., & Buijzen, M., 2015); (2) rise in obesity among young children due to too much time taken watching television and consumption of snack among the young children (Nikkelen, S. W. C., Vossen, H. G. M., & Valkenburg, P. M., 2015); (3) increase in drug and alcohol abuse among children as influenced by the ads children watch in television among other key contemporary factors. All these factors significantly influence the behavioral development of children and thus appropriate actions should be taken to revert the trend. This paper intends to find the changing life of children due to the introduction and continuous use of television among children.

Background Definitions

The background definition section consists of the phrases and terms that are frequently used throughout this capstone project. Terms are defined based on the previous studies that have been done.

Television viewing: is defined as “watching televised content (i.e. program, shows, series or movies) on a screen, be it a television, laptop, computer, tablet computer or other screen” (Exelmans, L., & Van den Bulck, J., 2018) during active hours of the day. Tukachinsky, R., & Eyal, K., (2018) defines television viewing as the act of watching at least three episodes of any one program in one sitting. According to Schmidt, M. E., Rich, M., Rifas-Shiman, S. L., Oken, E., & Taveras, E. M. (2009), television watching refers to “…the amount of time that the child is in a place where he/she can see a television that is on”. In this capstone project, television watching/viewing will refer to the watching of videos, advertisements or any message using any electronic gadget that has the ability to project the content for more than two hours in any single sitting.

Behavioral development: Weyns, T., Colpin, H., Engels, M. C., Doumen, S., & Verschueren, K. (2019) defined behavioral development based on two categories (externalizing and internalizing behaviors). Externalizing behaviors refers to as “annoying and disruptive” behaviors to the environment for the child that displays them” (Weyns, T., Colpin, H., Engels, M. C., Doumen, S., & Verschueren, K., 2019). On the other hand, internalizing behaviors was defined as behaviors which are directed to self, i.e. towards the child (Weyns, T., Colpin, H., Engels, M. C., Doumen, S., & Verschueren, K., 2019). In this capstone project, behavioral development will imply to both external and internal behaviors of a child after television watching.

Television exposure: Lin-Yi Lin et al (2015) defined television exposure as the screen based activities which majority of the children participated in. In this capstone project. Television exposure will refer to the number of time a child sits watching television with her/his parent or alone

Television: According to Ritonga, D. H., & Sofyani, S. (2018), “television is a mass media widely used in the world”. Here, the television will carry the same meaning as Ritonga, D. H., & Sofyani, S. (2018) defined it but both sound and images/pictures are televised on the television.

Problem Statement

The problem is that many children are developing extraordinary behaviors which their parents and guardians don’t even understand how they got the behaviors. Juvenile delinquency has increased more significantly due to these adopted behaviors. Children are become obese and have developed critical medical problems because of too much time children take watching television than playing and doing other physical exercises useful to their health wellbeing (Courage, M. L., & Howe, M. L., 2010). A research done by the University of Michigan found that just being awake and in the room with the television for several hours a day poses risk of obesity at ages three to four-and-a-half. Children effected by this will have weight issues that continue into adulthood resulting in serious and complicated medical challenges (Michael Rich, M.D., S. Jean Emans, M.D., Elizabeth R. Woods, M.D., M.P.H., Robert H. DuRant, Ph.D., 2013). Children watch the television mostly on weekends, in doing so this affects their body mass index (BMI), and can lead to obesity in adulthood. A study done by researchers from Michigan University and colleagues while investigating whether physical activity, dieting, inactive behavior or television viewing predicted BMI among children in the ages of 3- to 7 years. Research have found that lack of physical activity and television viewing are common factors for becoming overweight (Courage, M. L., & Howe, M. L., 2010). Watching television was considered a higher influence than dieting. Inactivity and television viewing became stronger predictors as children continue to grow.

Another serious problem a child is exposed to while watching television is the overweight problem. Previous studies gathered were based on adults of age 26, and how much time a child watched television is a single day.  Research found that “17% of overweight, 15% of raised serum cholesterol, 17% of smoking, and 15% of poor fitness can be attributed to watching television for more than 2 hours a day during childhood and adolescence”(Beales III, J. H., & Kulick, R., 2013) after monitoring for perplexing variable. Therefore, when children watch television too much the end results are that they are likely to develop an overweight problem at an old age.

A key problem for parents and the society with children currently is the information children get from television about sexuality and relationships, sexually transmitted diseases as well as birth control measures which most parents, schools and even religious institutions fail to have a one-on-one discussion with their children about. Therefore, children are left with no option but turning to television where all the information about sex is available (Beales III, J. H., & Kulick, R., 2013). The sexual content which is available on television is mostly for adults, hence, children are sexually exploited by what they watch in soap operas, music videos, prime time shows and advertisements which all contain lots of sexual content, but usually nothing about contraception or safer sex (Labaš, S. D., & Ljubičić, M., 2016).

According to American Journal Association (2015), adolescents that are exposed to sexual content displayed on TV are more likely to impregnate or become pregnant.  Researchers found out that, even after monitoring for other risk factors, adolescent pregnancy increased with more sexual exposure on television. Alcohol use among children is initiated by the frequent advertisement that runs through the television while watching prime shows (Beales III, J. H., & Kulick, R., 2013). Children are introduced to alcohol use while at their tender age and hence affects greatly their behavioral development.

Therefore, the major problems that arise to children while watching television are earlier sexual orientation, overweight, drug abuse and lack of sleep due to too much time watching television. This problem requires a lot of attention to protect children for bad behavior development and ensure that the future generation is brought up well.

Integrated Literature Review

The various studies that have been conducted on the effect of television viewing on child development are similar in various parts of the world. The effects that television viewing influences on children are dependent on the age range of the child and the duration the child takes watching TV in a single day. A study done by Ling-Yi Lin at el (2015) on television exposure and how it affects developmental skills among young children based in Taiwan where a sample of 150 children ages between 15 months and 36 months were interviewed on the effect television viewing has on language, cognitive and motor development skills.

Data Collection Procedures and Data Analysis Used in the Study

Lin-Yi Lin et al (2015) conducted the research at Southern Taiwan university medical center on pediatric outpatient clinics after the National Cheng Kung University Hospital gave the ethical clearance license to conduct the study. Parents and caregivers were requested to allow their children to participate in the study by signing a written informed consent for the same. The children who participated in the study were divided into two broad groups, i.e. those who frequently watched television and those who watched television infrequently. After the grouping, those who rarely watched TV were used as control group for the study. Both children and the parents/caregivers were participants in the study where questions were tailored towards them. One question which the parents/caregivers were asked was if the child used any source of entertainment such as television, smartphone, iPad, and computer (Lin-Yi Lin et al, 2015).

The measures studied were developmental assessment and demography. Based on the developmental assessment of children, language skills development and the intellectual development of the child. Demographic information collected during the study were gender, age, birth order, weight, height, preschool attendance, care providers, media used, and time spent on each of these activities (Lin-Yi Lin et al, 2015). The parental and family characteristics included marital status, ethnic group, parent highest education level, and employment status as part of the demographic information collected from parents or caregivers and children. SPSS statistical software was used for the analysis and appropriate statistics were recorded.

Results

The study by Ling-Yi Lin et al (2015), the outcome of the study showed that children that frequently watched television (137.2 min per day) had a higher probability of experiencing delayed cognitive, language, and motor development skills than children who infrequently watched television (16.3 min per day). There is an increase of delayed language development when a child is more exposed to viewing television. According to Ling, et al (2015), children who were often exposed to television were at risk of experiencing delayed motor development skills than those who were infrequently exposed (OR = 3.7). Children exposed to TV at an early age experiences language development as they grow.

The article addressed is relevant to the study since it provides background on the influence television viewing has on children. It forms part of the support from the study based on the effect television viewing have on the child’s behavioral development. Delayed language and motor skill development is influenced by the amount of time a child watches television per day. It implies then that television viewing negatively affect the developmental skills of the child.

Literature Review II

Child developmental behaviors studies has been done by various researchers. More specifically, the effects technology has on children has been done. Television viewing and use of phones as well as social media access has made more negative effects on children as compared to positive impacts. Four articles will be analyzed and integrated to support the literature of the research topic. The contributions the studies adds to the topic are the methods of data collection used for the study, data analysis techniques and the implications of results of the studies.

Li, K., Jurkowski, J. M., & Davison, K. K. (2013) studied the influence of excessive television watching on little children – at preschool age. The study involved the examination on how social support from family members influences children to watch television and the outcome of the social support. The study involved a random sample 129 parents of pre-school children of ages between 2 and 5 years old (Li, K., Jurkowski, J. M., & Davison, K. K., 2013). Research questions were administered to the caregivers on how they socially support their children to watch television. The frequency of allowing their children to watch television was considered and then the behavior changes of their children, i.e. physical activities, eating activities, weight, stress perception and management as well as symptoms of depression (Li, K., Jurkowski, J. M., & Davison, K. K., 2013). The social support which children receive from nonfamily members was also measured and recorded (Li, K., Jurkowski, J. M., & Davison, K. K., 2013).

The findings from the study shows that children took approximately three hours to watch television per day (Li, K., Jurkowski, J. M., & Davison, K. K., 2013). The increased time of watching TV per day resulted to poor family functioning, increased obesity among the children, rise in depression cases among the children, increased maternal stress had a direct association with the time the child takes watching television per day. The study also reported that children reduced their playing time to watch television hence increase in obesity among the children (Li, K., Jurkowski, J. M., & Davison, K. K., 2013).

Ansari, A., & Crosnoe, R. (2016) studied whether the difficult behaviors of a child at earlier years were associated with television watching more frequently at this age. The amount of time children watched television per day has a significant influence of their behaviors, i.e. health behavior, social interaction, their achievements both at the early and late time (Ansari, A., & Crosnoe, R., 2016, Christakis, 2009). The more the time children take watching television, the more the deterioration of the behaviors of the child (Ansari, A., & Crosnoe, R., 2016).

The study reported that children between ages two and five years watched television for approximately two hours a day (Ansari, A., & Crosnoe, R., 2016). Ansari, A., & Crosnoe, R. (2016) included several independent variables such as the age of the child, the economic status of the parents, the number of siblings in the family, the region where the child is from, the race of the child, the marital status of the parents and the migration status of the child as well as the preschool going status of the child. A sample of 6,250 children born in US were sampled and used for the study (Ansari, A., & Crosnoe, R., 2016).

The result of the study shows that the hypersensitive behaviors of the child were associated with television watching (Ansari, A., & Crosnoe, R., 2016). The behaviors are nevertheless not very aggressive (Ansari, A., & Crosnoe, R., 2016). Less disadvantaged families allowed children to watch television for more time as opposed to advantaged families (Ansari, A., & Crosnoe, R., 2016).

Another study by Kostyrka-Allchorne, K., Cooper, N. R., & Simpson, A. (n.d.) where the association between child’s development and cognitive behavior and television viewing. According to Kostyrka-Allchorne et al (n.d.) where children aged 14 years or less were involved in the study, reported that the age of the child determines the duration the child takes to watch television per day. Older children – adolescents – watched television more than the younger ones – less than 5 year. The behavioral influence increased with the duration taken to watch television. Nevertheless, the adolescents watched education shows more than their young ones, hence they were beneficial to them (Kostyrka-Allchorne et al, n.d.). Linebarger & Walker, (2005) however reported that when infants watch the educative shows with the adolescents, their language development was affected negatively.

Kostyrka-Allchorne et al (n.d.) indicated that television watching among the children lowers the likelihood of them acquire and learn languages and communication skills. The communication skills and the language used by children who spend more time per day to watch television is closely associated with the shows they watch (Kostyrka-Allchorne et al, n.d.). As Ansari, A., & Crosnoe, R. (2016) reported, Kostyrka-Allchorne et al (n.d.) similarly founded out that the age and family social economic status contributed immensely to time the child watch television per day. Television watching reduces the playtime of the child, the interaction time between parents and children, lower responsiveness and delay in language development among the children (Kostyrka-Allchorne et al, n.d.).

Zhao, J. et al (2018) studied the effect of excessive television watching among the children on their sleep time, the body mass index and their interaction with their parent. A sample of 20,324 – three to four years of age children were used in the study (Zhao, J. et al, 2018). Both parents and children were involved in the study and thus were asked questions. Specifically, the duration the child took watching television, playing, sleeping, interacting with their parent as well as the age and height of the child were recorded (Viewing sexual content on TV linked to subsequent teen pregnancy, 2015). The difficult questions were answered by parents. The study was based in Shanghai – China.

The results show that the increased time to watch television affected the psychological well-being of the child. The association between sleeping time, parents’ interaction, time playing were negatively associated with time taken watch television (Zhao, J. et al, 2018). This is in line with the previous studies.

Therefore, child development behaviors and television watching are negatively associated. The more time a child took watching television lowers his/her development skills. Parents and caregivers should control television watching for their children to enable them development their behaviors well.

Summary

By now we have addressed four peer-reviewed articles, acknowledging the strengths and weaknesses of their perspectives as well as the focus or breadth of their scope relative to the overall problem of the effects of television viewing on children’s behavioral development. The studies shows that children are negatively affected by the amount of time they take watching television each day. Studies from various parts of the world have similar implications. Ansari, A., & Crosnoe, R. (2016) indicated that the difficult and heinous behaviors children develop at their early ages was a result of television watching. All the studies interviewed both parents and children during data collection. This ensured that children provided information about television watching and parent answered the difficult part of the study. The inclusion of many aspects about children ensured that as much information as possible was collected form children.

The major weaknesses of the peer-reviewed articles is the different definition of the duration in which children took watching television per day. The difference in the amount of time watching TV may give varying results and hence distinct conclusions. Nevertheless, the articles provides a good basis of research for the topic.

Critical Analysis I

This critical analysis will use the same four articles discussed in the integrated literature review above. Here, the analysis of the source of the problem for each article is examined, how each researcher defines television watching, who the victims of the problem are, who are the problem under the study hurts as well as who benefited from the problem (Ansari, A., & Crosnoe, R., 2016). Further critique of the similarities and differences in the result of the study and last the summary of the articles and their relationship with the research topic, i.e. the effects of television watching on children’s behavioral development.

Origins, concepts and research methods of the present literature

We will begin with an elemental definition of television watching/viewing according to each article. Li, K., Jurkowski, J. M., & Davison, K. K. (2013) defines excessive television watching on children as those who watched television for the than two-hours per day. Ansari, A., & Crosnoe, R. (2016) defines television watching among children – which affects them – as eight hours a day in a typical workday. Zhao, J. et al (2018), children were classified into various categories depending on the duration they watched TV per day each week day and those who took more than four hours a day was considered television excessively. On the other hand, Kostyrka-Allchorne, K., Cooper, N. R., & Simpson, A. (n.d.) did not provide any particular definition of the duration in which children were deemed as watching television excessively.

The victims of television watching in all the articles are children who in turn affected the society due to the bad behaviors they adopted from television watching (Kostyrka-Allchorne, K., Cooper, N. R., & Simpson, A., n.d.). The health of the children is similarly affected due to too much time they watched TV per day. The more time the children watch television per day also affected their language development skills and social interaction (Ansari, A., & Crosnoe, R., 2016). The reduction of physical activities and interaction with their parents significantly hampered their behaviors of the children. All these effects affected the parents, the government and the society in large both economically and socially. However, children gain from education by watching television although it is minimal (Zhao, J. et al, 2018). The beneficially of watching television are the host of the various TV episodes that are televised for children to watch. Sexual predators who target children for their actions gain once they get their prey – children (Viewing sexual content on TV linked to subsequent teen pregnancy, 2015).

Critique

The most glaring deficiencies must be seen holistically rather than specifically. Specifically, the effect of television watching is adamant in all the peer-reviewed journals. In all the articles, children were negatively influenced when they spent a lot of time viewing televised episodes per day. Ansari, A., & Crosnoe, R. (2016) founded out that children who watched television excessively affected their hypersensitivity which Li, K., Jurkowski, J. M., & Davison, K. K. (2013) indicated that obesity, stress, depression and maternal stress increased with excessive watching of television per day.

Historically, therefore, television watching negatively impact the lifestyle and behavioral development of the child. The society is also affected when the children spend a lot of time watching television since severe health cases arise and the juvenile delinquency are on the rise. This study particularly focusses on the effects TV watching has on children’s developmental behaviors when they are as young as 3 months to eighteen years (Lin-Yi Lin et al, 2015).. The amount of time to be considered as excessive watching of television is more than 3 hours in one sitting. The demarcation of the time taken watching television is a major weakness in the studies since each articles sets its own duration (Beales III, J. H., & Kulick, R., 2013). However, the results on both articles are closely related and provides a good ground of the study topic.

Summary

In an attempt to acknowledge the literature on both narrow and broad scales, both primary and secondary sources were chosen for this critical analysis. The literature provides great support for the topic. As evident in the studies, television watching affect the child’s development is various aspects such as health, interaction, learning among others. The child’s developmental behaviors has a close relationship with the content the he/she views in the television and other gadgets such as iPhone, Pcs and even online (Ritonga, D. H., & Sofyani, S., 2018). The implication from literature shows that negative effects exceed positive. Parents and caregivers also contributes to what their children watch in television and the duration. Thus, the studies are meaningful and important to the topic.

Critical Analysis II

Television watching has severe effects on children’s developmental behaviors. There are various causes and effects which TVs have on the developmental behaviors of children. More specifically, the causes and effects that will be enjoined in this paper are as follows; alcohol consumption, cigarettes smoking, sexual pictures and use of condoms as well as educative programs. These effects are as a result of the availability of uncontrolled televisions in most homes. The contents which are televised although controlled by the Federal Communications Commission, it does not fully protect children because other episodes which are considered normal to watch affects children.

The episodes watched by children influence them to consume alcohol and cigarette smoking when the contents which are streamed by the major television media houses in USA contains the huge number of references to alcohol use, smoking of cigarettes and other illicit drugs. More than a quarter of all videos and programs streamed by MTV contain some sorts of alcohol or tobacco use advertisements. DuRant RH, Rome ES, Rich M, Allred E, Emans SJ, Woods ER (2015) founded out that there exists a positive correlation between television and music video viewing and alcohol consumption among teens. Lastly, the analysis of the content which is televised on TVs indicates that children and teenagers are continuously being blasted with sexual imagery and allusions by the adverts and programs streamed in televisions (Beales III, J. H., & Kulick, R., 2013).

Children should be protected from these shows as much as possible using any means available. Parents and other stakeholders should engage in media education programs which can greatly help in mitigating the dangerous effects of media violence and alcohol advertising on children and adolescents (Michael Rich, M.D., S. Jean Emans, M.D., Elizabeth R. Woods, M.D., M.P.H., Robert H. DuRant, Ph.D., 2013). According to Kostyrka-Allchorne, K., Cooper, N. R., & Simpson, A. (2017), the inclusion of media education programs in the United States school curricula starting from early elementary school in many states assists in curbing this menace. Nevertheless, unending support of the Children’s Television Act of 1990 should be championed throughout the country since it advocates for the airing of educational and informational programming specifically for children for not less than 3 hours every week and ensuring that advertisement when the children programs are aired is limited (Kostyrka-Allchorne et al, n.d.).

Television media houses that stream programs and shows that depicts sexual contents or talk about sex affects the children sexual behaviors. Earlier exposure of children (mostly less than 16 years) to sexual content possess a great risk of involvement on sexual risk-taking and exposure of children to unsolicited sex, sexually transmitted infections, and early teenage pregnancy (Li, K., Jurkowski, J. M., & Davison, K. K., 2013). According to Linebarger & Walker, (2005), children living in high-income countries have a higher exposure sexual content which in turn influences their sexual behaviors and hence affecting their developmental behaviors sexually. The main reason for this is because the sexual content televised in TVs is the primary source of sexual socialization for the children and hence affects the attitudes and beliefs that is conducive for the children by introducing them to early sexual initiation rendering children to be more permissive to sexual norms, having high positive expectations about sex and grander safe-sex self-efficacy (Linebarger & Walker, 2005).

Children should be protected from the sexual content streamed or discussed in television regularly. The methods that can aids in curbing the consumptions of this media content by children is for parents to engage in parental mediation talks with the children, parental restrictions and restriction of internet use for accessing the sites that are deemed dangerous for children (Nikkelen, S. W. C., Vossen, H. G. M., & Valkenburg, P. M., 2015).. Parental mediation behaviors involves the setting of rules on the duration of television watching, when and what media content children can watch, having media content discussions with the children and engaging in television co-viewing with the children. The application of the parental restrictions and mediation may greatly reduce the attachments children have with various shows and thus helping them not to engage in early sexual behaviors.

Based on the above causes and effects, neither of them is more inferior to the other. These effects should be highlighted and dealt with to ensure that children are brought up with good morals and behaviors (Beales III, J. H., & Kulick, R., 2013). The juvenile delinquency which is the involvement of criminal actions by young people – children may be attributed to the television shows – Cops and America’s most Wanted which children watch increases their misperception of crime acts (Linebarger & Walker, 2005). Thus, television watching has a big role in the shaping of the behaviors of children as they develop.

Problem Resolution

The primary problems we can identify are language development problem among children, child bullying in schools, drug use, malnutrition and obesity, aggressive and violent behaviors and earlier introduction into sexual activities. The increased time of watching television every day resulted to poor family functioning, increased obesity among the children, rise in depression cases among the children, increased maternal stress had a direct association with the time the child takes watching television per day (Li, K., Jurkowski, J. M., & Davison, K. K., 2013). The time parents/caregivers take to interact with their children is also reduced hence resulting into adoption of bad behaviors which parents and/or caregivers cannot explain their origin due to too much time spent watching television. Physical activities are also been replaced by television watching hence obesity, increased obesity among the children, rise in depression cases among the children, increased maternal stress among children(Li, K., Jurkowski, J. M., & Davison, K. K., 2013).

The effects that television watching has on children can be resolved in three major ways. These are the main resolutions that seem potential to reduce the effects of television watching among children. First, parents should ensure that they spent time with their children and not to substitute parenthood roles with TV sets in their sitting rooms and even in the bedrooms of their children. According to Ansari, A., & Crosnoe, R., (2016), the more time the children watch television per day also affected their language development skills and social interaction. The reduction of physical activities and interaction with their parents significantly hampered their behaviors of the children (Ansari, A., & Crosnoe, R., 2016). The parent-child interaction will ensure that children have the right information about TV programs and what to watch. Nevertheless, children may feel that their parents and micro-managing them on what programs they watch and at what time.

Another resolution which is potential is for the government to put in place though and stern regulations for media houses concerning what kind of adverts they stream during children programs and media education programs among parents and other stakeholders. According to Michael Rich, M.D., S. Jean Emans, M.D., Elizabeth R. Woods, M.D., M.P.H., Robert H. DuRant, Ph.D. (2013), Parents and other stakeholders should engage in media education programs which can greatly help in mitigating the dangerous effects of media violence and alcohol advertising on children and adolescents. Similarly, Kostyrka-Allchorne, K., Cooper, N. R., & Simpson, A. (2017), found out that the inclusion of media education programs in the United States school curricula starting from early elementary school in many states assists in curbing this menace. Also, parents and other stakeholders of the rights of children should support the Children’s Television Act of 1990 which seeks to protect children from consuming harmful information from media houses. Children should be protected from the sexual content streamed or discussed in television regularly. The methods that can aids in curbing the consumptions of this media content by children is for parents to engage in parental mediation talks with the children, parental restrictions and restriction of internet use for accessing the sites that are deemed dangerous for children (Nikkelen, S. W. C., Vossen, H. G. M., & Valkenburg, P. M., 2015).

These resolutions are realistic and should therefore be implemented to ensure that our children are protected from unethical and brain damaging shows. Parents/caregivers have a sole responsibility to spending time when their kids. Physical activities which have been replaced for watching television is part of normal/routine exercise advocated by health experts not only for adults but also for children. Therefore, these resolutions are applicable and parents and caregivers should implement them. Those who seem to be affected are parents because they are require to set some more time for their kids. The kids would not affected as such since they will be guided by their parents on what they are watching and what is good for their consumption.

The major barrier for the implementation of the resolutions is the lack of support from parents and caregivers. Most parents/caregivers are so much attached to their work than the commitments they have with their children (Lin-Yi Lin et al, 2015). The advantage of parents spending time with their children is that children are always on track with their parent’s instructions and guidance. Failure to spend more time with the kids, bad behaviors will develop among the children which will affect both parents and children negatively in the future.

Social Implications

Goals

The goals of this project was;

· Determine how television watching/viewing affect the behavioral development of the child

· Determine the causes, effects of problems/issues that arise from children watching television

· Formulate resolutions that help in solving the problems

Visions

Children are being affected by what they watch in televisions and other media platforms. More attention should be given to what is available in media houses and other platform to ensure that the future generation is protected from harmful consumptions of episodes.

Capstone Reflection

This Capstone was expressive for me and served not only as a means of social inquiry but also as personal ventilation and for further research on the topic. Children are the epicenter of a country and the society and thus should be seriously looked upon on what they consume from media houses and other media platforms. Therefore, more research and intervention is necessary in the topic to found out more about what children spend time watching when alone or with others peers.

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